080210xf's Blog

L'X fragile sera vaincu | Fragile X will be conquered

Archive for Fragile X and autism

FMRP function throughout life leading to targeted treatments for FXS

PubMed Central / ncbi.nlm.nih.gov |

(…)

FMRP is an mRNA-binding protein that is important for mRNA transport, mRNA stabilization and translation of mRNA into protein at the synapse [129-131]. FMRP is also a factor in the regulation of adult neurogenesis, so in the absence of FMRP there is dysregulation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3β, reduced β-catenin and defective Wnt signaling. These alterations lead to downregulation of neurogenin 1, which is an early initiator of neuronal differentiation and an inhibitor of astrocyte differentiation [132]. Therefore, FMRP is important throughout life and there is a high incidence of motor problems, including Parkinson disease (PD), with aging in those with FXS [133]. In addition, in neuropathologic studies, there is evidence of migration problems in the hippocampus and in the cerebellum in those with FXS (Greco et al,. unpublished data), which are similar to those reported in individuals with autism [134]. These problems may be related to dysregulation of Wnt signaling in both FXS and autism.

Perhaps the most important change in protein expression in the absence of FMRP is the excess basal translation of proteins involved in the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 5 receptor pathway [135]. Bear and colleagues have proposed the mGluR theory of FX, suggesting that the deficits associated with FXS are related to upregulation of the downstream effectors of the mGluR5 pathway, leading to enhanced long-term depression (LTD), and that treatment with an mGluR5 antagonist could be a targeted treatment for FXS [135,136]. Both FMRP and mGluRs play important roles in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity, and in the absence of FMRP there are long, thin and immature dendritic spines in both human and animal models of FXS [137-142]. There are also enhanced, abnormal epileptiform discharges consistent with an enhanced rate of clinical seizures in FXS [143,144].

Support for the ‘mGluR theory’ has been shown by generating FMR1 mutant mice with a 50% reduction in mGluR5 expression [145]. The mGluR5 deficiency rescued most of the KO mouse abnormalities including altered ocular dominance plasticity, increased density of dendritic spines on cortical pyramidal neurons, increased basal protein synthesis in the hippocampus, exaggerated inhibitory avoidance extinction, audiogenic seizures and accelerated body growth. However, macroorchidism was not rescued. This work is supportive of the proposal by Bear et al. [146]that excessive mGluR5 signaling is responsible for the psychiatric and neurological symptoms of FXS, including cognitive deficits, seizures, anxiety, perseverative movements and social deficits.

Use of mGluR5 antagonists in animal models of FXS further supports the mGluR theory. MPEP (2-methyl-6-phenylethynyl pyridine hydrochloride) is a potent, highly selective antagonist of mGluR5 receptors [147]. In vitro, both MPEP and fenobam, another mGluR5 antagonist, were able to rescue hippocampal dendritic abnormalities in the KO mice [148,149]. MPEP has reversed audiogenic seizures, epileptiform discharges, open field hyperactivity and the defect in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response in KO mice [148-150]. When MPEP and lithium, a partial mGluR5 antagonist that also blocks GSK3β, were given to dfmr1 loss of function Drosophila mutants, the flies had restored normal courtship behavior, memory and brain structural abnormalities through the reduction of mGluR activity [151]. MPEP is toxic to humans, so other mGluR5 antagonists including fenobam have been studied in FXS [152,153]. Fenobam was found to be safe in a single dose trial in 12 adults with FXS. There were improvements in hyperactivity and anxiety, and 50% showed at least a 20% improvement in PPI [152]. Currently there are two additional mGluR5 antagonists undergoing trials in adults with FXS at multiple centers [153].

Other mechanisms to downregulate glutamate release and modulate mGluR overactivity have been investigated. γ Aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptor agonists, such as baclofen, inhibit both presynaptic release of glutamate and postsynaptic transmission and/or intracellular signaling downstream from mGluR5 [154-156]. Baclofen has been shown to be efficacious in treating hyperactivity [157], marble burying (Seaside Therapeutics, unpublished data) and audiogenic seizure phenotypes in FX KO mice [158]. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of arbaclofen, the right sided isomer of baclofen that is significantly more potent than regular baclofen as a GABA agent, has just been completed at multiple centers,and involved over 60 individuals with FXS (aged 6 years and older). The preliminary safety and efficacy results are positive, with improvement in the Clinical Global Impression Improvement scale in those with the most severe baseline ratings [159]. There are also preliminary studies that are taking place involving individuals with autism without FXS, and these studies have also produced preliminary positive results. Therefore, further studies on both FXS and autism are set to take place.

The GABAergic system is also dysregulated in FXS, and GABA agents are important to consider for targeted treatment studies in FXS. GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptor in the brain, which is important in anxiety, depression, epilepsy, insomnia, and learning and memory [160]. GABA-mediated inhibition is important for terminating ictal discharges and the spread of hyperexcitability, which can lead to seizures [161].

There are two main subtypes of GABA receptors: GABAA and GABAB. The main difference between them is that the first is a ligand gated Cl- channel that gives fast inhibition, whereas the latter is a G-protein coupled receptor which gives slower and more prolonged inhibitory signals [162,163]. The metabotropic GABAB receptor can either be presynaptic and inhibit the release of neurotransmitters through downregulation of high-voltage activated Ca2+-channels; or, when postsynaptic, decrease neuronal excitability through its influence on K+ channels. Thus, GABAB agonists such as arbaclofen mediate their downregulating effects on either side of the synapse. The ionotropic GABAA receptor is usually localized postsynaptically, and their activation leads to opening of Cl- channels and hyperpolarization of the membrane potential, thus making it difficult for excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate to generate an action potential. GABAA receptors are more abundant than GABAB receptors in mammalian brain, and disorders such as epilepsy, sleep disorders and anxiety are now being treated using drugs that act on the GABAA receptor[164].

Direct binding between FMRP and the mRNA of the delta subunit of the GABAA receptor has been shown [165]. Reduced expression and dysfunction of several subunits of the GABAA receptor (α1, α3, α4; β1, β2; γ1, γ2 and δ) have been shown in FX animal models [166-168]. FMR1 Drosophila mutants destined to die from glutamate toxicity were rescued after administering molecules involved in the GABAergic pathway [166]. In addition, abnormal male courtship behavior and mushroom body abnormalities were rescued by GABA agents [166].

There is a profound reorganization of neocortical inhibitory circuits of GABAergic intraneurons in the KO mouse [164,167-173]. Recent evidence indicates that deficits in GABA-mediated inhibition may underlie many of the key symptoms in FXS, including the seizures, anxiety and autistic-like behaviors [167,169,173]. The neocortex in KO mice exhibits a marked reduction in the density of GABAergic interneurons that stain with parvalbumin. Moreover, electrophysiological studies in brain slices from these animals exhibit impaired GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory function [174]. In addition to a gross reduction in GABA-mediated inhibition caused by the maldevelopment of inhibitory circuits and the loss of GABAergic interneurons, there is also evidence of altered GABAA receptor subunit expression in the FX KO mouse [167]. In particular, there appears to be a selective reduction in the expression of δ subunits [167,168]. Global expression analysis by means of the differential display in the FX mouse model revealed consistent underexpression of only three genes, one of which was the GABAA receptor subunit δ. As GABAA receptors are the major inhibitory receptors in the brain, and are specifically involved in processes that are disturbed in FX, including neuronal excitability (leading to enhanced seizure susceptibility), anxiety, sleep and learning, enhancement of the function of GABAA receptors may have major therapeutic benefits for FXS. Kooy and colleagues [175] have demonstrated that use of the GABAA agonist ganaxolone (3α-hydroxy-3β-methyl-5α-pregnan-20-one) improved seizures in the KO mouse model of FXS. Ganaxolone is a 3β-methylated synthetic analog of the progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone, which is itself a neuroactive steroid. Unlike progesterone, neither allopregnanolone nor ganaxolone have direct hormonal activity via progesterone receptor activation, and cannot cause hormonal side-effects. However, allopregnanolone and ganaxolone are powerful positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors [161]. Human trials indicate that ganaxolone is well tolerated and that it may be efficacious in the treatment of diverse forms of epilepsy in children and adults [176-180]. Plans for studies on ganaxolone are currently underway in children and adults with FXS.

Minocycline, a widely used antibiotic used to treat acne and skin infections, is another promising drug that may target core symptoms of FXS and autism. Minocycline inhibits matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and reduces inflammation in the central nervous system. MMPs are enzymes involved in synaptic plasticity, and are associated with immature dendritic spine morphology [140,181]; MMP-9 is elevated in FXS. When minocycline was administered to FMR1 KO mice, their hippocampal neurons exhibited mature dendritic spines, and behaviorally, they showed decreased anxiety and improved exploration skills [140]. Off-label use of minocycline to treat 50 individuals with FXS resulted in two-thirds of families noticing positive improvements in their child’s language, attention and/or behavioral improvements while on the medication [182]. An open-label trial is ongoing to investigate the effects of minocycline on children with regressive autism at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Paribello reported beneficial effects on the CGI and the Aberrant Behavior checklist in an open trial of minocycline involving patients with FXS who were aged 13 and older [183]. Currently, a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial is in progress at the Medical Investigation of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (MIND) Institute for individuals with FXS who are aged 3.5 to 16 years

FXS has led the way for targeted treatments in neurodevelopmental disorders, and many of the treatments guided by molecular abnormalities in FXS may also be helpful for non-FX autism. The treatment trials will now combine targeted treatments, which strengthen synaptic connections, with enhanced educational and behavioral interventions to further develop appropriate synaptic connections in FXS. These targeted treatments combined with educational interventions look promising for reversing the intellectual and behavioral problems of FXS. Because of the shared neurobiological and molecular pathways, these interventions will hopefully also prove helpful in a subset of patients with idiopathic autism

(…)

Conclusions

FX syndrome and autism are intertwined, because FMRP regulates the translation of many messages that affect synaptic plasticity and connectivity in the central nervous system. The absence of FMRP also leads to upregulation of mGluR5 pathways and downregulation of GABAA pathways. Targeted treatments to reverse these problems are currently being studied in patients with FXS. Many of these targeted treatments may also be helpful for ASD without FXS.

www