080210xf's Blog

L'X fragile sera vaincu | Fragile X will be conquered

Autism, Alzheimer disease, and fragile X APP, FMRP, and mGluR5 are molecular links

Neurology.org |

Abstract

 

The present review highlights an association between autism, Alzheimer disease (AD), and fragile X syndrome (FXS). We propose a conceptual framework involving the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), Aβ precursor protein (APP), and fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) based on experimental evidence. The anabolic (growth-promoting) effect of the secreted α form of the amyloid-β precursor protein (sAPPα) may contribute to the state of brain overgrowth implicated in autism and FXS. Our previous report demonstrated that higher plasma sAPPα levels associate with more severe symptoms of autism, including aggression. This molecular effect could contribute to intellectual disability due to repression of cell–cell adhesion, promotion of dense, long, thin dendritic spines, and the potential for disorganized brain structure as a result of disrupted neurogenesis and migration. At the molecular level, APP and FMRP are linked via the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). Specifically, mGluR5 activation releases FMRP repression of APP mRNA translation and stimulates sAPP secretion. The relatively lower sAPPα level in AD may contribute to AD symptoms that significantly contrast with those of FXS and autism. Low sAPPα and production of insoluble Aβ would favor a degenerative process, with the brain atrophy seen in AD. Treatment with mGluR antagonists may help repress APP mRNA translation and reduce secretion of sAPP in FXS and perhaps autism.

www

No comments yet»

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: